• User Agents: End system acting on behalf of user e.g. client & server. Initiates SIP request & server receives requests and returns responses on behalf of user.
  • Network Servers: Three types available:
    • Registration server – receives client location updates.
    • Proxy server – forwards receiving request to next-hop server.
    • Redirect server – determines next-hop server, returns address of next-hop server to client instead of forwarding request.

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