- Systemic – whole is greater than the parts.
- Iterative – steps repeated, not purely sequential.
- User-centred – focuses on stakeholders.
- Information-centred – focuses on gathering information.
- Qualitative – based on debate, negotiation and consensus.
- Problem exploration – focus on exploring understanding problem rather than solving it.
- Conceptual – modelling is conceptual, important to recognise if solutions identified involve Hard Systems.