Hard Systems – introduction

Systems Thinking has concept of Hard and Soft Systems as previously covered. Hard Systems traditional approach from 1930s. Soft Systems formalised by Peter Checkland in 1970s. Examples of Hard Systems approaches: traditional MS/OR RAND (developed around 1955) systems engineering system dynamics (developed 1956) Approaches based on following assumptions: Clearly defined problem Decision makers objectives are known as well as measurable […]