Soft systems arrive

Concept – 1970s, driven by Peter Checkland. Checkland and Russell Ackoff acknowledged Hard Systems was mature but still problems where implemented and approach not always suitable. Ackoff (1974) – messes – often not possible to soleve – and difficulties – something solvable. Checkland – complexity, where involved, not always possible to identify. Involvement of humans – ‘soft’ issues – hard […]

Classification of Hard and Soft Systems

Problem situations classified along two dimensions, according to Jackson and Keys (1984): complexity – number of of elements and their interactions divergence of values and interests Low complexity – few elements and well-defined, linear, stationary interactions. High complexity – many elements, many interrelationships, dynamic and not well-understood relationships in turbulent environment From systems viewpoint, envisage two types of complexity: Technical […]