Soft systems arrive

Concept – 1970s, driven by Peter Checkland. Checkland and Russell Ackoff acknowledged Hard Systems was mature but still problems where implemented and approach not always suitable. Ackoff (1974) – messes – often not possible to soleve – and difficulties – something solvable. Checkland – complexity, where involved, not always possible to identify. Involvement of humans – ‘soft’ issues – hard […]

Classification of Hard and Soft Systems

Problem situations classified along two dimensions, according to Jackson and Keys (1984): complexity – number of of elements and their interactions divergence of values and interests Low complexity – few elements and well-defined, linear, stationary interactions. High complexity – many elements, many interrelationships, dynamic and not well-understood relationships in turbulent environment From systems viewpoint, envisage two types of complexity: Technical […]

Hard Systems – introduction

Systems Thinking has concept of Hard and Soft Systems as previously covered. Hard Systems traditional approach from 1930s. Soft Systems formalised by Peter Checkland in 1970s. Examples of Hard Systems approaches: traditional MS/OR RAND (developed around 1955) systems engineering system dynamics (developed 1956) Approaches based on following assumptions: Clearly defined problem Decision makers objectives are known as well as measurable […]