Referencing Websites

For websites, required elements are: Authorship or Source Year Title of web document or web page [type of medium] (date of update, if available) Place of publication Publisher Available at: include web site address/URL [Accessed date].

Referencing Journal Articles

Required elements: Author, initials Year Title of article Full Title of Journal Volume number (Issue/Part number) Page numbers e.g. Boughton, J.M., 2002. The Bretton Woods proposal: an indepth look. Political Science Quarterly, 42(6), 564-78. Referencing Electronic Journals Required elements: Author, initials Year Title of article Full Title of Magazine/Journal [online] volume (issue) page numbers If on open repository: e.g. Kipper, D., 2008. […]

Referencing Textbooks

Use title page, not book cover. Include edition only when not the first. No specified edition, then usually first. Required elements are: Author, initials Year Title of book Edition (only if not the first) Place of publication (town or city) Publisher e.g. Elliott, C. and Quinn, F., 2010. English Legal System. 10th Edition. Harlow: Pearson E-books When accessed via resource such […]

What is a Reference List?

List in full of sources cited in document. Presenting the Reference List List in alphabetical order by author’s surname. Italicise titles of book, report, journal (not title of journal article). Capitalise first letter of publication title, first letters in journal title, all first letters of a place name and publisher. Should be accurate, consistent and include all required information.

Citing Electronic Sources

Should identify author of website when citing material. Author could be: corporate author organisation company Date of publication may be in footer or near the author/headline at the top of the page. In text citation: A BBC investigation (, 2011) into corporate governance… Reference list: BBC, 2013. Viewpoint: Why is China Investigating Glaxo Smithkline? [online]. London: BBC. Available from […]

Secondary Referencing

When citing a reference within a reference i.e. another author’s work referred to in material being read. Direct reference: Research recently carried out in the Greater Manchester area by Brown (1966 cited by Bassett 1986, p.142) found that … Indirect reference: (Brown, 1966 cited by Bassett, 1986, p.142) Above example shows that Brown carried out the work being referred too […]

Citing Quotes

Best to paraphrase or summarise information rather than directly quote – shows understanding of information. May be more appropriate to quote when: paraphrasing more lose impact of quote quote is unusual want to use quote to support argument Provide page number where quote can be found. Emphasise quote by indenting and using quotation marks – identified quote as someone else’s […]

Citing Two or More Authors

Referencing more than one author in the same sentence: “Jones (1946) and Smith (1948) have both shown…” Referencing a source with more than one author: “Abbott and Sales (1946) stated that…” “Further research in the late forties (Abbott and Sales, 1946) lead to major developments…”