A Business example approach

Hard Systems Model of Change (HSMC) – based on methods from systems engineering (SE), operational research (OR) and project management (PM). With HSMC, easier to determine objectives, find options for action and test them against criteria. HSMC has three phases: 1) Description Description of current system. Explain why change is required. Described in words, diagrams etc. Objectives (factors largely under […]

Role of Hard Systems

Hard Systems prevalent way of viewing world. Operational Research (OR) developed in 1940s, during World War 2 by Allied forces. Quantitative techniques and incorporation of logistics. Used to plan and deploy resources in Normandy beach landing. Also used in Enigma project – German submarine code cracking. Hard systems approach systematically worked through options. Rapid expansion of use of computers in […]

Classification of Hard and Soft Systems

Problem situations classified along two dimensions, according to Jackson and Keys (1984): complexity – number of of elements and their interactions divergence of values and interests Low complexity – few elements and well-defined, linear, stationary interactions. High complexity – many elements, many interrelationships, dynamic and not well-understood relationships in turbulent environment From systems viewpoint, envisage two types of complexity: Technical […]

Hard Systems – introduction

Systems Thinking has concept of Hard and Soft Systems as previously covered. Hard Systems traditional approach from 1930s. Soft Systems formalised by Peter Checkland in 1970s. Examples of Hard Systems approaches: traditional MS/OR RAND (developed around 1955) systems engineering system dynamics (developed 1956) Approaches based on following assumptions: Clearly defined problem Decision makers objectives are known as well as measurable […]