Exists in nature, independent of human modification. Consists of physical and biological materials and intertwined processes. E.g. growth of plants, weather system and fertility of soil. Agriculture example of human organisational system introduced to existing natural system to control and modify it. It is affected by natural systems such as weather, ability of soil to produce crops and feeding patterns […]
Organisations have management structure determining relationships between activities performed and employees performing them. Organisations considering open systems – they affect and are affected by their environment. Many organisations were considered closed systems as they organised and operated within with no regard for their environment. Managers would analyse each department in turn which although working well individually could not integrate with others. […]
Humankind has learned to live in many environments based on successful adaptation. Interaction of humans with environment (surroundings) results in major changes both good and bad. Bad changes often from making too big a change in environment. e.g. first settlers in Americas caused 50 million deaths by disease resulting in a fall of carbon dioxide due to expansion of rain […]
Engineered system – man-made system to fulfil specific purpose. A combination of components working together to collectively perform useful function. E.g. new manufacturing process, technology to improve delivery of a service, an infrastructure system.
Feedback helps control a system in either a good way or a bad way. Inappropriate feedback can lead to erratic behaviour or even collapse of the system. Always try to provide feedback based on desired output. Can be either direct or indirect (from another system). Feedback loops enhance, decrease or buffer changes within system. Feedback can be negative or positive. […]
Black box concept – what happens inside not of initial interest. Input(s) and output(s) are of concern. Box represents a process. Initial idea can be developed further by breaking down into further sub-systems with their own inputs & outputs. Easy to go wrong with complex systems if deductive logic not followed.
Start by naming system, define it closely and well to ensure its extent and its capabilities and limits are known and clear to those discussing it. Boundary determines what is include and what is left out. Specify beginning and end, too small a boundary results in important items being left out. Noteworthy items put outside boundary but provide inputs to […]
First question is – do systems exist. The answer is yes and no. Key point to understand about Systems Thinking – provides set of concepts and techniques to analyse situations. Can be used in number of situations analyse existing situations situations that are not systems but insights can be gained Fundamentally, system is set of inconnected things that produce pattern […]
Systems described as one of: Probabilistic System Affected by chance events Future behaviour of system is matter of probability E.g. political systems, business systems and social systems Deterministic System Operate to predetermined set of rules E.g. data processing systems and the planetary system Software and networks are deterministic systems implemented in probabilistic systems (e.g. businesses) resulting in issues of complexity […]