Citing Electronic Sources

Should identify author of website when citing material. Author could be: corporate author organisation company Date of publication may be in footer or near the author/headline at the top of the page. In text citation: A BBC investigation (, 2011) into corporate governance… Reference list: BBC, 2013. Viewpoint: Why is China Investigating Glaxo Smithkline? [online]. London: BBC. Available from […]

Secondary Referencing

When citing a reference within a reference i.e. another author’s work referred to in material being read. Direct reference: Research recently carried out in the Greater Manchester area by Brown (1966 cited by Bassett 1986, p.142) found that … Indirect reference: (Brown, 1966 cited by Bassett, 1986, p.142) Above example shows that Brown carried out the work being referred too […]

Citing Quotes

Best to paraphrase or summarise information rather than directly quote – shows understanding of information. May be more appropriate to quote when: paraphrasing more lose impact of quote quote is unusual want to use quote to support argument Provide page number where quote can be found. Emphasise quote by indenting and using quotation marks – identified quote as someone else’s […]

Citing Two or More Authors

Referencing more than one author in the same sentence: “Jones (1946) and Smith (1948) have both shown…” Referencing a source with more than one author: “Abbott and Sales (1946) stated that…” “Further research in the late forties (Abbott and Sales, 1946) lead to major developments…”