Are White Papers Credible?

Somewhat credible, refer back to Hierarchy of Credibility. Protect reputation – unlikely to publish something that is wrong. Have to sell their products – unlikely to publish anything negative towards it. No independent peer review of white paper. Reviewed and edited by internal personnel. Triangulation required to rule out bias. Do not always have named authors. Unable to cross-reference with other […]


Computer equipment manufacturers do a lot of research and are responsible for major contributions to computer technology. Also fund research in universities and other organisations. Manufacturers sometimes publish their findings in academic journals and conferences. Peer review applies. Research is credible. In-house publications known as white papers. Are white papers credible?

The Internet (Web)

Internet/Web not a source, only method of delivery. Need to identify where the information has come from before being available on the Internet. Example 1 – an academic paper you found via the Internet Archives such as those provided by IEEE and ACM make published academic papers available via the Internet. The paper will be credible whether it is found […]


Books likely to be factually correct but content may not be current given time to get published and available for purchase. For example, book published in 2014 may have been written in 2012. Publishers have rigorous process of validation and editing. Always use most recent edition. If used as a source, support the material with more recent papers. Conference proceedings […]

Sample Papers

The following show how a research project has progressed from the initial idea through to implementation: New idea Paper: AODV protocol (Perkins & Royer, 1999) Publication: Perkins, C.E., Royer, E.M. (1999), Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing, 2nd IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications, New Orleans, pp90-100 Experiment Paper: Simulation comparison of AODV with DSR (Das, Perkins & Royer, 2000) Publication: Das, S.R., […]