Brief but comprehensive summary/overview of entire paper. Describes: topic of research hypothesis being tested results of test conclusions drawn Rest of paper fills out details.
Usually includes all contributors to paper. Many etiquettes/guidelines covering who to include and in what order. Very between publications and subject areas. Usually first is lead author who has made significant contribution. Also common for many journals to list authors alphabetically. Student papers often list supervisor.
Structure varies to some extent, review of previous work can vary, key elements always the same: Title & Author information Abstract Keywords Introduction Related work Contribution to knowledge Conclusions Evaluation and future work Acknowledgements References
Basic cycle is as follows: Read some papers Write literature review Do research Write it up Submit to journal or conference Peer review Acceptance & publication, or rejection (90% in some cases – revise & resubmit) Others read the paper Repeat process
Many organisations Learned societies Publishing companies
Academics Industrial researchers Students Not usually degree students Masters students required to “contribute significantly to the knowledge of mankind” Additionally, anyone can write an academic paper. Peer review process is double-blind therefore author does not need to be expert in subject area. Reviewer does not need to know paper is not from large research institution.