Citing Electronic Sources

Should identify author of website when citing material. Author could be: corporate author organisation company Date of publication may be in footer or near the author/headline at the top of the page. In text citation: A BBC investigation (, 2011) into corporate governance… Reference list: BBC, 2013. Viewpoint: Why is China Investigating Glaxo Smithkline? [online]. London: BBC. Available from […]

Secondary Referencing

When citing a reference within a reference i.e. another author’s work referred to in material being read. Direct reference: Research recently carried out in the Greater Manchester area by Brown (1966 cited by Bassett 1986, p.142) found that … Indirect reference: (Brown, 1966 cited by Bassett, 1986, p.142) Above example shows that Brown carried out the work being referred too […]

Citing Quotes

Best to paraphrase or summarise information rather than directly quote – shows understanding of information. May be more appropriate to quote when: paraphrasing more lose impact of quote quote is unusual want to use quote to support argument Provide page number where quote can be found. Emphasise quote by indenting and using quotation marks – identified quote as someone else’s […]

Citing Two or More Authors

Referencing more than one author in the same sentence: “Jones (1946) and Smith (1948) have both shown…” Referencing a source with more than one author: “Abbott and Sales (1946) stated that…” “Further research in the late forties (Abbott and Sales, 1946) lead to major developments…”

How to drop an Oracle database without DBCA

If, when you come to remove an Oracle database, you find that DBCA is not available perhaps due to some installation issue or missing files then do not fret as it is still possible to remove the database by following these steps… 1 – Set the Oracle SID D:\Oracle\product\11.2.0\dbhome_1\BIN>set ORACLE_SID=TESTDB 2 – Connect to the database and verify the name D:\Oracle\product\11.2.0\dbhome_1\BIN>sqlplus […]

What is an In Text Citation?

When referring to another author’s work or ideas in your work, need to cite source by author’s last name and year of publication. Examples: Direct citation – author is cited alongside their work. In general, when writing for a professional publication, it is good practice to make reference to other relevant published work. This view has been supported in the […]

Collecting the Right Information

Need to record the appropriate information about the source during research. Books The author’s or editor’s name (or names) The year the book was published The title of the book If it is an edition other than the first The city the book was published in The name of the publisher Journals The author’s name or names The year in […]

The Harvard Referencing System

Two stages to referencing work using author-date or Harvard system: Refer to work in writing (in text citation). Provide full details of source in bibliography/references. Example: The requirement that feedback is received by students while it still matters to them was raised by Gibbs & Simpson (2004). This supports the view of Kulik (1980) who showed that a teaching method […]