Problem situations classified along two dimensions, according to Jackson and Keys (1984):
- complexity – number of of elements and their interactions
- divergence of values and interests
Low complexity – few elements and well-defined, linear, stationary interactions.
High complexity – many elements, many interrelationships, dynamic and not well-understood relationships in turbulent environment
From systems viewpoint, envisage two types of complexity:
- Technical complexity – physical, mathematical or computational nature
- Human/social complexity – interrelationships between stakeholders