Potential Problems with the Literature Search

Searching literature can generate uncertainty and doubt. The search generates questions When reviewing information sources with a particular question in mind, one can build a familiarity with the range of information available. This in itself can lead to questions not previously contemplated. The need for refinement Refinement of the topic starts in early stages and continues throughout in order to […]

Critical Evaluation

When there is a lot of information on the subject area, it is easy to repeat what existing literature already states. This is not a literature review as nothing has been reviewed. Need to make own comments on literature being reviewed. Should be well reasoned & supported by evidence from literature. If there are clearly opposing views published, task is […]

What is a Literature Review?

Means to establish what is already know about chosen research topic. Critical evaluation – not a summary of other’s work. Demonstrates width & depth in reading of relevant information. Provides theoretical framework to be employed in own research. No defined standard but has three sections: Introduction – sets context for reader Main body – argument developed as literature is discussed […]

Referencing Websites

For websites, required elements are: Authorship or Source Year Title of web document or web page [type of medium] (date of update, if available) Place of publication Publisher Available at: include web site address/URL [Accessed date].

Referencing Journal Articles

Required elements: Author, initials Year Title of article Full Title of Journal Volume number (Issue/Part number) Page numbers e.g. Boughton, J.M., 2002. The Bretton Woods proposal: an indepth look. Political Science Quarterly, 42(6), 564-78. Referencing Electronic Journals Required elements: Author, initials Year Title of article Full Title of Magazine/Journal [online] volume (issue) page numbers If on open repository: e.g. Kipper, D., 2008. […]

Referencing Textbooks

Use title page, not book cover. Include edition only when not the first. No specified edition, then usually first. Required elements are: Author, initials Year Title of book Edition (only if not the first) Place of publication (town or city) Publisher e.g. Elliott, C. and Quinn, F., 2010. English Legal System. 10th Edition. Harlow: Pearson E-books When accessed via resource such […]

What is a Reference List?

List in full of sources cited in document. Presenting the Reference List List in alphabetical order by author’s surname. Italicise titles of book, report, journal (not title of journal article). Capitalise first letter of publication title, first letters in journal title, all first letters of a place name and publisher. Should be accurate, consistent and include all required information.

Citing Electronic Sources

Should identify author of website when citing material. Author could be: corporate author organisation company Date of publication may be in footer or near the author/headline at the top of the page. In text citation: A BBC investigation (www.bbc.co.uk, 2011) into corporate governance… Reference list: BBC, 2013. Viewpoint: Why is China Investigating Glaxo Smithkline? [online]. London: BBC. Available from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-china-23571312 […]

Secondary Referencing

When citing a reference within a reference i.e. another author’s work referred to in material being read. Direct reference: Research recently carried out in the Greater Manchester area by Brown (1966 cited by Bassett 1986, p.142) found that … Indirect reference: (Brown, 1966 cited by Bassett, 1986, p.142) Above example shows that Brown carried out the work being referred too […]